Quality of Croatian Inland Bathing Areas: Reference to The Region and EU

Authors

  • Dominik Galić University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1517-9069
  • Arijana Cenov Teaching Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6731-7868
  • Dražen Lušić University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia; Center for Advanced Computing and Modelling, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1636-6512
  • Marin Glad Teaching Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9567-3897
  • Slaven Jozić Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0671-2194
  • Bruno Cvetković Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0699-2085
  • Daniel Maestro Institute for Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Department of Environmental Health, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Health Studies, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3830-8671
  • Nerma Maestro Institute for Public Health of Caton Sarajevo, Department of Communal Hygiene, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Diana Mance Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6746-8693
  • Darija Vukić Lušić University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia; Teaching Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Department of Environmental Health, Rijeka, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0534-2547

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17532/jhsci.2021.1110

Keywords:

Bathing water directive, Escherichia coli, inland bathing water, intestinal enterococci, public health, recreational water quality

Abstract

Introduction: The Republic of Croatia (HR) has significantly invested in monitoring the quality of inland bathing areas during the past 10 years. The aim of this paper was to analyze the results obtained during the 2014-2019 period and to compare them with the Region (non-European Union [EU] countries neighboring Croatia) and EU. Moreover, bathing water quality data at two bathing areas of Zagreb (lakes Jarun and Bundek) were processed in more detail.
Methods: The quality of inland bathing areas in the HR is monitored in five rivers and five lakes in nine Croatian counties; 19 of the 35 monitored sites are located in Zagreb County. Escherichia coli (EC) was determined by EN ISO 9308-3: 1998, while intestinal enterococci (ENT) were defined by EN ISO 7899-2: 2000. Statistical processing of the results was performed using the Microsoft Excel Statistical Package (Redmond, USA) and Statistica 13.5. (Stat.Sof.Inc., Tulsa, USA); the significance level was set to p < 0.05.
Results: During the study period, the worst Croatian inland water quality was recorded in 2019 (excellent quality for only 25.9% of the bathing areas), while the best quality was recorded in 2015 (excellent quality in 57.1%). On average (2014-2019), the share of bathing areas with excellent quality in Croatia was 46.3% (i.e., under the EU average of 85.3%); with no poor locations (EU average was nearly 2%). A significant positive correlation was found between fecal indicators (EC&ENT) and the amount of precipitation, while a negative correlation with water and air temperature in lakes.
Conclusions: The quality of Croatian inland bathing areas is significantly lower than the European average, while EU water quality is improving. Regarding the countries bordering Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, and Hungary have achieved better results, while Montenegro, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina are still in the process of developing the monitoring of the bathing water quality.

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Published

2021-02-15

How to Cite

Galić, D., Cenov, A., Lušić, D., Glad, M., Jozić, S., Cvetković, B., Maestro, D., Maestro, N., Mance, D., & Vukić Lušić, D. (2021). Quality of Croatian Inland Bathing Areas: Reference to The Region and EU. Journal of Health Sciences. https://doi.org/10.17532/jhsci.2021.1110

Issue

Section

Research articles