Journal of Health Sciences <div style="display: none; text-align: left; padding: 10px 10px 10px 10px; margin: 0px; background-color: #cee3f6; color: #690000; border-radius: 3px; width: 100%;"><strong>ⓘ </strong>Please note that the website of the Journal of Health Sciences will undergo scheduled maintenance on Sunday, 30 May 2021<strong>. </strong></div> <div style="display: none; text-align: left; padding: 10px 10px 10px 10px; margin: 0px; background-color: #ffd7d7; color: #690000; border-radius: 3px; width: 100%;"><strong>ⓘ Notice to readers and authors: </strong>The is a duplicate and fake website of the Journal of Health Sciences, created by a malicious third party, fraudulently offering academicians the opportunity to rapidly publish their research online for a fee. The legitimate website of the Journal of Health Sciences is <strong></strong>. <br />If you have been a victim of the fraudulent website please report it here: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"></a></div> <div> <p><strong><em><br />The Journal of Health Sciences</em></strong> is an international, open access, peer-reviewed, and evidence-based scientific journal published by the University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Health Studies (UNSA FHS; <a href=""> ;</a> <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow"></a>).</p> <p>The Journal's mission is to promote excellence in nursing and a range of disciplines and specialties of <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow">allied health professions</a>. It welcomes submissions from international academic and health professionals community. The Journal publishes evidence-based articles with solid and sound methodology, clinical application, description of best clinical practices, and discussion of relevant professional issues or perspectives. Articles can be submitted in the form of research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor or commentaries.</p> </div> <div> <p>The Journal's priorities are papers in the fields of nursing, physical therapy, medical laboratory science, environmental health, and medical imaging and radiologic technologies. Relevant articles from other disciplines of <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow">allied health professions</a> may be considered for publication.</p> <p>It follows publishing standards set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (<a href=""><strong>ICMJE</strong></a>), Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href=""><strong>COPE</strong></a>), and the World Association of Medical Editors (<a href=""><strong>WAME</strong></a>).</p> <p><strong>This journal is indexed or abstracted by</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"><strong>SCOPUS</strong></a>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">EBSCO</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">DOAJ</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Scilit</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";user=fOhsyZ8AAAAJ&amp;view_op=list_works" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Google Scholar</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";order=date" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Dimensions</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Researcher</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Scimago</a></strong>, PROQUEST, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"><strong>ScienceOpen</strong></a>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">MIAR</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE)</a></strong>, CAB Abstracts, ULRICH'S, Academic Journal Database, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, Index Copernicus, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and other libraries.</p> </div> University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Health Sciences en-US Journal of Health Sciences 2232-7576 Commentary: Data storytelling to aid health system decision-makers with population health issues for a specific location <p>Modern society is awash in data for health science, health system, and public health decision-making. These public data are often presented in various formats: Data tables, reports with data and bar charts, press releases with data, dashboards of key performance indicators, the traditional professional paper with data table and statistical results, etc. Software can display these data in various ways. The tacit assumption is that the reader/consumer of the data has the means to interpret these often complex health data for individual use and professional decision-making. We do not think that it is reasonable to make this assumption in all situations. Instead, maybe those of us who collect and analyze health data should include data storytelling as a way to make it easier for health system decision-makers to know and appreciate the next steps to be taken in the decision-making process given the data we prepared. The interpretation of data for action using a charticle and other techniques of infographics and health data storytelling may be more useful to health system decision-makers than the presentation of detailed facts and data and a scientific interpretation of those facts and data. This commentary illustrates the process of data storytelling using a charticle to help health system decision-makers interpret health data and use it as a foundation for action.</p> Gregory Fant Tamala Choice Copyright (c) 2022 Gregory Fant, Tamala Jones Choice 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 170 173 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1706 Endodontic treatment of dens invaginatus with periapical lesion <p>Dens invaginatus or dens in dente represent anomaly of the developing tooth due to invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla. Dens invaginatus is usually diagnosed by standard radiological methods (RVG, OPG, and 3DCBCT). Clinical examination may reveal a mottled, dilated or conical shape of the crown. Endodontic treatment of dens invaginatus can be difficult and complex due to the deviated anatomy. This report describes the successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor that had dens invaginatus and a large periapical lesion. Clinical examination in a 30-year-old patient revealed an acute periapical abscess, and a dens invaginatus type II was diagnosed after radiography. Due to the existing anatomy, endodontic treatment of the main canal was performed through two access cavities, which enabled chemo-mechanical treatment and access to all parts of the root canal. The canal of the invaginated tooth was treated through the third access cavity.</p> Selma Jakupović Anita Bajsman Amra Vuković Adnan Šehić Meris Jušić Amela Sofić Fuad Julardžija Copyright (c) 2022 Selma Jakupović, Anita Bajsman, Amra Vuković, Adnan Šehić, Meris Jušić, Amela Sofić, Fuad Julardžija 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 174 177 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1756 Comparison between capacitive and resistive electronic transfer therapy and high-intensity laser therapy in pain conditions related to musculoskeletal disorders <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) imply damage to muscular or skeletal systems, which usually develop due to strenuous, repetitive activity, or an inflammation process. The therapy with capacitive and resistive electronic transfer (CRet) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) have mainly been applied for pain relief in these conditions. This paper aims to provide an overview of the efficient results of CRet therapy and HILT in managing pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders found in the available literature.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Articles related to musculoskeletal disorders were searched through electronic databases, such as PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Lilacs, Cochrane, Research Gate, and available website search tools. After excluding records that are not clinical trials and studies (such as review articles, patient information, and Ph.D. papers) and articles which did not deal with pain in musculoskeletal disorders, 61 articles met our criteria and were included in the overview.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> By reviewing the selected articles related to CRet therapy and HILT effects on pain in musculoskeletal disorders, it was found that both therapies have a favorable effect on pain reduction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The selected papers showed that both therapies are powerful tools for pain reduction. Although there are no specific protocols, including the number and frequency of therapies applied and other parameters, in both therapy modalities, pain alleviation occurs during or immediately after a therapy cycle application.</p> Žarko Mitrić Maja Vučković Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović Miloš Lalović Copyright (c) 2022 Žarko Mitrić, Maja Vučković, Amra Mačak-Hadžiomerović, Miloš Lalović 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 98 109 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1744 The assessment of balance and gait after programmed therapeutic exercises in elderly <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> People over the age of 50 begin to show manifestations of reduced balance and instability, and as a result, simple activities such as standing or getting up from a chair may become limited or impossible. Therapeutic strengthening exercises can increase muscle strength and improve mobility, as well as the physical functioning of the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate therapeutic exercise on balance and gait in elderly.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The prospective study included two groups of 130 respondents over the age of 65 who had come to the “Center for Healthy Aging Novo Sarajevo.” Using the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) test, we assessed mobility performance. We tested the respondents at the beginning, in the middle and in the end of the research, which lasted 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the control group, the required time increased by 2.04%. The largest improvement within POMA B was recorded in the examined Group B and it was 12.67 %, while in the examined Group A, the improvement was only 5.07%. Within POMA G, the largest improvement was also recorded in the examined Group B and it was 6.82%, while in the examined Group B, this improvement was 4.14%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Both strengthening and antigravity therapeutic exercises improve the level of physical fitness in older adults, although therapeutic antigravity exercises had a better impact on the level of physical activity.</p> Bakir Katana Arzija Pašalić Eldad Kaljić Samir Bojičić Gordan Bajić Sead Kojić Dinko Remić Hadžan Konjo Copyright (c) 2022 Bakir Katana, Arzija Pašalić, Eldad Kaljić, Samir Bojičić, Gordan Bajić, Sead Kojić, Dinko Remić, Hadžan Konjo 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 110 115 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1796 Incidence and impact of neck pain on daily life activities of the student population <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Neck pain (NP) may have a local mechanical (non-specific) origin caused by dysfunction of the joint, muscle, and ligament structures in the neck or by a discogenic etiology. Most people (50–60%) suffer from NP at some point in their lives. They are more common in highly developed countries and in urban areas. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NP and its impact on daily living activities in the student population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included students of the University of Sarajevo - Faculty of Health Studies in the period from May 2021 to June 2021. The sample of respondents was formed by the method of random selection and included respondents of both sexes, aged 19–28 years. The study was conducted as a transversal cross-sectional study at a specific time point on the frequency of NP and the ability to perform activities of daily living in the student population.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total number of 255 respondents, 77 (30.2%) reported that they have NP while 178 (69.8%) respondents reported that they do not feel NP and it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the age groups of the subjects with and without NP. The study concluded that a higher percentage of respondents with NP did not engage in leisure activities and that respondents with NP had lower mobility in daily life, sleep disturbance, and poorer ability to perform activities of daily living due to NP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study conducted revealed that a significant percentage of the student population with NP has a lower ability to perform activities of daily living. Considering the above facts and the current transformation of the educational model, in which static postures dominate, it is necessary to design and implement programs for targeted physical activity and prevention of long-term inactivity that leads to painful musculoskeletal syndromes.</p> Eldad Kaljić Martina Jurišić Bakir Katana Namik Trtak Adela Erović Vranešić Nikola Jevtić Gordan Bajić Adnan Mujezinović Copyright (c) 2022 Eldad Kaljić, Martina Jurišić, Bakir Katana, Namik Trtak, Adela Erović Vranešić, Nikola Jevtić, Gordan Bajić, Adnan Mujezinović 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 116 121 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1773 Efficacy of cling film dressing on palmoplantar psoriatic lesions among patients with psoriasis: A randomized controlled trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Caring for patients with skin disorders is “more than skin deep”. Psoriasis is a systematic immune-mediated disease that generally does not affect survival, but certainly has major negative effects on patients. The previous research has reported that artificial restoration of a permeable barrier by occlusion results in regression of lesions in psoriasis.<br />The aim of this research is to assess the efficacy of cling film dressing versus conventional treatment on palmoplantar psoriatic lesions among patients with psoriasis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research design used in the study was a true experimental time series design. Block randomization was used to assign the study participants into either study or control group in a Psoriatic Out-Patient Department of tertiary care center at Southern part of India. As usual, the intervention group participants received the application of topical corticosteroid Eczivate MF with cling film wrap while the control group participants followed the conventional treatment (topical corticosteroid Eczivate MF without occlusive dressing). The modified psoriasis severity index (MPSI) score was used to measure the outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a high statistical significance difference on the severity of psoriatic disease level between the control and study groups (p ˂ 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Steroidal cream application with occlusive dressing yielded better results than non-occlusive open treatment.</p> Devakirubai Jacob Eilean Rathinasamy Lazarus Ramesh Chandrababu Copyright (c) 2022 Devakirubai Jacob, Eilean Rathinasamy Lazarus, Ramesh Chandrababu 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 122 128 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1747 Determinants of sexual satisfaction among Bosnian and Herzegovinian women <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sexual satisfaction is the pleasure an individual feels both physically and psychologically, and is the result of erotic experiences, thoughts, dreams, and autoeroticism. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to present the determinants of sexual satisfaction among Bosnian and Herzegovinian women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The survey was conducted on 387 Bosnian and Herzegovinian women via online questionnaire that consisted of demographic data and 17 statements. The validated questionnaire was used with some adaptations and contained a 5-point Likert scale for each statement, ranging from “not at all satisfied” to “extremely satisfied.” The inclusion criteria were: (a) Age 18–60 years; and (b) completion of the questionnaire as personal consent. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 statistical software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data collection was conducted from July 2020 to September 2020. The realization rate of the sample was 24.19%. Most of the participants have a high school diploma, most are between 18 and 24 years old and most are currently married. Thirty-five percent of women sometimes experience pain during intercourse (less than half the time). The lower half of the vagina (from the vaginal entrance to the half of the vagina) and the lower part of the abdomen are usually most affected. A relationship was found between the number of children and sexual satisfaction. Women without children were the most satisfied with their sexual life, followed by women who had only one or two children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Every woman has the right to feel sexual satisfaction. The complexity of sexual satisfaction is reflected in many determinants and factors that can influence it positively and negatively.</p> Andrej Starc Naida Golubović Tomislav Jukić Aleksandar Racz Raja Dahmane Gošnak Copyright (c) 2022 Andrej Starc, Naida Golubović, Tomislav Jukić, Aleksandar Racz, Raja Dahmane Gošnak 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 129 135 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1740 Comparison of the frequency of bacteriuria in diabetic and non-diabetic patients without symptoms of urinary tract infection <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections among either community or hospital-acquired infections. UTIs are common in diabetes mellitus, with glycosuria and neurogenic bladder being the predisposing factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective observational study. The study population consisted of 100 diabetic and 40 non-diabetic patients. The rates of bacteriuria and pyuria were investigated in diabetic and non-diabetic patients who had been hospitalized and who did not have any complaints of UTI. Urine samples of patients were collected and each sample was tested through microscopy and culture. Furthermore, the urine samples were inoculated on blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar medium and incubated for 18–24 h at 37°C. Diabetic patients were evaluated to obtain data on age, gender, duration and type of diabetes, body mass index, retinopathy, nephropathy, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A higher rate of bacteriuria was detected in diabetic patients (21%) than in non-diabetic patients (5%) (p = 0.02). Infections were detected more frequently in patients with high HbA1c level (p = 0.001), those in the advanced age group (p = 0.014), and those with nephropathy (p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Asymptomatic bacteriuria was more prevalent in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients, with poor glycemic control, age, and nephropathy being significant risk factors. Escherichia coli is the most common organism that causes bacteriuria in diabetic patients.</p> Aylin Çalica Utku Copyright (c) 2022 Aylin Çalica Utku 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 136 139 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1563 Presence of nitrates and nitrites in fresh cow milk from milk machines during winter and summer period in the city Zagreb and Zagreb County area <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of the study was to determine the nitrites and nitrates content in fresh cow’s milk samples from milking machines, and to determine whether their amount is affected by the season of sampling (summer/winter).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The methodology used was analytical transversal method at 2-time points. All milk samples were sampled at milk machines from the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County, during the summer and winter months in 2020. A total of 40 milk samples were sampled, with 20 samples in each monitored period (summer/winter). A high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector was used to identify and quantify concentrations of the nitrate and the nitrite content. The results were processed using descriptive statistics and the statistics of differences.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis determined the range of nitrate content from 1.28 mg/kg to 19.71 mg/kg and the range of nitrite content was from 0.49 mg/kg to 3.42 mg/kg in milk samples. The mean result of nitrates in fresh cow’s milk samples in the summer period was 9.12 mg/kg and in the winter period of 3.88 mg/kg. The mean value of nitrite in the summer was 1.23 mg/kg, while the mean value of nitrite in the winter period was 1.48 mg/kg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research has shown that the nitrate and the nitrite levels in local fresh cow’s milk sampled in milk machines do not exceed the maximum allowable intake. The obtained results confirmed that the amounts of nitrates and nitrites in the milk samples differ significantly during the winter and summer periods and differences are depending on the location of the milk machine.</p> Martina Brkić Jasna Bošnir Danijel Brkić Martina Bevardi Aleksandar Racz Dario Lasić Vedran Đido Arzija Pašalić Marko Vlainić Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Brkić, Jasna Bošnir, Danijel Brkić, Martina Bevardi, Aleksandar Racz, Dario Lasić, Vedran Đido, Arzija Pašalić, Marko Vlainić 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 140 145 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1816 Assessment of patient safety perception nurses in health system of Bosnia and Herzegovina in COVID period: Descriptive and cross-sectional study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Patient safety depends on a number of factors such as teamwork, working climate, employee satisfaction, work environment, stress awareness, management perception, and attitude. Nurses have a key role to play in protecting and supporting patients, and their assessment serves as a reliable predictor of overall hospital safety. A positive attitude toward patient safety is associated with a significant reduction in complications. The aim of the study was to analyze the perception of nurses about all aspects of patient safety in relation to the workplace and length of service.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research included 647 nurses employed in health care institutions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of health care. A descriptive and cross-sectional study included nurses from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was conducted in the period from November to December 2021, during the COVID pandemic. A standardized questionnaire on the perception of patient safety was used – Safety Attitudes Questionnaire – SAQ.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis of the examined factors in relation to the workplace of the respondents revealed a statistically significant difference in job satisfaction (p &lt; 0.001), as well as in the safety climate at work in relation to the workplace (p = 0.005), working conditions (p &lt; 0.001), and management perception (p &lt; 0.001). Stress levels showed significant differences regarding working position (p = 0.017), but also through the years of service (p = 0.012). Stress was significantly correlated with teamwork (r = 0.124; p = 0.003), showing that better teamwork will help with stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The synthesis of concepts that includes patient safety and orientation toward patients should be implemented as a strategic quality orientation and set as a priority of every health care system.</p> Amina Lučkin Arzija Pašalić Hadžan Konjo Suada Branković Anes Jogunčić Almedina Alihodžić Alma Mizdrak Elmedina Mrkulić Copyright (c) 2022 Amina Lučkin, Arzija Pašalić, Hadžan Konjo, Suada Branković, Anes Jogunčić, Almedina Alihodžić, Alma Mizdrak, Elmedina Mrkulić 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 146 151 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1794 Urogenital dysfunction and quality of life in women after stroke: Pilot study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Research shows that urinary and sexual dysfunction is very common neurological sequelae of stroke with a markedly significant impact on body self-image and quality of life. Still, there is a lack of recent research to address this problem in female stroke survivors. The study aimed to examine the existence and level of urinary and sexual dysfunction, quality of life, and self-reported body image in a group of women after stroke and compare findings with those found in a group of women with other chronic non-neurological diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study’s sample consisted of 30 females; two groups composed of 15. The stroke group consisted of subjects after stroke and the non-neurological group with different chronic non-neurological, mainly muscle-skeletal conditions. This study’s specific interest data were collected from respondents through pelvic floor distress inventory (PFDI-20), the pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7), female sexual function index (FSFI), and an eight-item body image scale (BIS). The SPSS v.26 program was used for statistical processing.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results show a statistically higher scores in stroke group (M = 219.65 ± 34.573) on PFDI-20 than in non-neurological group (M = 118.54 ± 27.734). Furthermore, statistically significant higher scores were found in stroke group in PFIQ-7 (Mdn = 233.33) and BIS (Mdn = 16.00) than in non- neurological group (Mdn = 28.57) – PFIQ-7; (Mdn = 11.00) – BIS. Also, statistically significant lower scores were found in stroke group (Mdn=10.40) on FSFI index than in non-neurological group (Mdn=24.60).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Women after stroke show significantly more urinary and sexual dysfunction, lower quality of life, and poorer body self-image than the non-neurological group of chronic non-neurological conditions. There is a clear need for research on this issue in women after stroke.</p> Snježana Schuster Iva Lončarić Kelečić Kristina Uglešić Copyright (c) 2022 Snježana Schuster, Iva Lončarić Kelečić, Kristina Uglešić 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 152 156 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1727 Defectological support for educational inclusion of person with cerebral palsy and other associated disabilities <p><strong>Introduction</strong><em>: </em>The education system of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina includes 60% of people with cerebral palsy (CP), hearing impairment and other associated difficulties, of which 37.50% in regular schools and 22.50% in special schools. From the total number of students, 44.44% attending schools according to the regular curriculum, and 55.56% according to the adjusted curriculum (1).</p> <p><strong>Methods<em>: </em></strong>The study is retrospective and analytical-descriptive. The study was conducted on a sample of 120 respondents fr<em>om four cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Each Canton was used as one subsample of respondents. </em>The data are presented in tabular form using classical descriptive statistics methods. The parametric statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the level of statistical significance of 0.05 was used to examine the statistical significance of differences between the sub-samples of the respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results<em>: </em></strong>The results of the study showed that persons with cerebral palsy, hearing impairment and other associated difficulties do not have adequate support in educational inclusion. Defectological support at school is provided for 17.50% of persons with cerebral palsy, hearing impairment and other associated difficulties, and only 6.66% of persons have the support of a teaching assistant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Persons with cerebral palsy, hearing impairment and other associated difficulties do not have adequate support in educational inclusion. There is no statistically significant difference between the subsamples of respondents when it comes to special education support and assistant support in the educational inclusion.</p> Naim Salkić Emira Švraka Bakir Katana Hadžan Konjo Copyright (c) 2022 Naim Salkić, Emira Švraka, Bakir Katana, Hadžan Konjo 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 157 163 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1691 Quantification of some additives in energy drinks using high-performance liquid chromatography <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Energy drinks (EDs) are products in the form of a beverage or concentrated liquid designed to increase both mental and physical stimulations. Their popularity has grown tremendously, especially among children and adolescents, regardless of the growing number of undesirable health consequences associated with their consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the content of additives in EDs available in the Bosnian and Herzegovinian (B&amp;H) markets.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-two EDs from 15 brands were analyzed. The contents of quinine (QUIN), caffeine (CAF), benzoic acid (BZA), and sorbic acid (SA) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median value of QUIN, CAF, SA, and BZA was 0.15 ppm, 309.05 ppm, 75.35 ppm, and 90.80 ppm, respectively. The highest CAF content variation was found in EDs of brand 4, and the lowest was in brand 6. A statistically significant difference was found between the obtained values in relation to the recommended daily intake of CAF for adolescents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The CAF content in EDs deviates by 10% from the content stated in the product declaration. All EDs on the B&amp;H market should carry a clear warning: “High CAF content must not be mixed with alcohol and is not recommended for children, pregnant and/or lactating women, and CAF-sensitive individuals.” Given the behavioral trends associated with the potential risks of excessive CAF consumption, particularly among youth, national agencies in B&amp;H should recognize areas of intervention such as responsible marketing and advertising, and education and awareness-raising. Further research and monitoring would be needed to determine the effectiveness of the various aspects of the proposed risk management approach.</p> Arzija Pašalić Sabina Šegalo Daniel Maestro Amir Čaušević Amina Suljović Copyright (c) 2022 Arzija Pašalić, Sabina Šegalo, Daniel Maestro, Amir Čaušević, Amina Suljović 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 12 2 164 169 10.17532/jhsci.2022.1925