Journal of Health Sciences <div style="display: block; text-align: left; padding: 10px 10px 10px 10px; margin: 0px; background-color: #ffd7d7; color: #690000; border-radius: 3px; width: 100%;"><strong>ⓘ Notice to readers and authors: </strong>The is a duplicate and fake website of the Journal of Health Sciences, created by a malicious third party, fraudulently offering academicians the opportunity to rapidly publish their research online for a fee. The legitimate website of the Journal of Health Sciences is <strong></strong>. <br />If you have been a victim of the fraudulent website please report it here: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"></a></div> <div> <p><strong><em><br />The Journal of Health Sciences</em></strong> is international, open access, peer-reviewed and evidence-based scientific journal published by the University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Health Studies (UNSA FHS; <a href=""> ;</a> <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow"></a>).</p> <p>The Journal's mission is to promote excellence in nursing and a range of disciplines and specialties of <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow">allied health professions</a>. It welcomes submissions from international academic and health professionals community. The Journal publishes evidence-based articles with solid and sound methodology, clinical application, description of best clinical practices, and discussion of relevant professional issues or perspectives. Articles can be submitted in the form of research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor or commentaries.</p> </div> <div> <p>The Journal's priorities are papers in the fields of nursing, physical therapy, medical laboratory science, environmental health, and medical imaging and radiologic technologies. Relevant articles from other disciplines of <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow">allied health professions</a> may be considered for publication.</p> <p>It follows publishing standards set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (<strong>ICMJE</strong>; <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow"></a>), Committee on Publication Ethics (<strong>COPE</strong>; <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow"></a>), and the World Association of Medical Editors (<strong>WAME</strong>; <a href="" rel="noopener nofollow"></a>).</p> <p><strong>This journal is indexed or abstracted by</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"><strong>SCOPUS</strong></a>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">EBSCO</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">DOAJ</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Scilit</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";user=fOhsyZ8AAAAJ&amp;view_op=list_works" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Google Scholar</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";order=date" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Dimensions</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Researcher</a></strong>, <strong><a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Scimago</a></strong>, PROQUEST, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow"><strong>ScienceOpen</strong></a>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">MIAR</a></strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE)</a></strong>, CAB Abstracts, ULRICH'S, Academic Journal Database, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, Index Copernicus, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and other libraries.</p> </div> University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Health Studies en-US Journal of Health Sciences 2232-7576 Evaluation of patient specific quality assurance of gated field in field radiation therapy technique using two-dimensional detector array <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Gated tangential field-in-field (FIF) technique is used to lower the dose to organs at risk for breast cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered treatment plan with and without gating using a two-dimensional detector array for patient-specific verification purposes.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, a 6MV beams were used for the merged FIF RT (forward Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy). The respiration signals for gated FIF delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). RPM system used for four-dimensional computed tomography scanner light-speed, GE is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external 6-point marker. The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the multileaf collimator Millennium 120. The MapCheck2 (SunNuclear, Florida) was used for the evaluation of treatment plans. MapCheck2 was validated through a comparison with measurements from a farmer-type ion chamber. Gated beams were delivered using a maximum dose rate with varying duty cycles and analyzed the MapCheck2 data to evaluate treatment plan delivery accuracy.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Results of the gamma passing rate for relative and absolute dose differences for all ungated and gated beams were between 95.1% and 100%.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gated FIF technique can deliver an accurate dose to a detector during gated breast cancer RT. There is no significance between gated and ungated patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA); one can use ungated PSQA for verification of treatment plan delivery</p> Dražan Jaroš Goran Kolarević Aleksandar Kostovski Milovan Savanović Dejan Ćazić Goran Marošević Nataša Totorović Dragoljub Mirjanić Copyright (c) 2020 Dražan Jaroš, Goran Kolarević, Aleksandar Kostovski, Milovan Savanović, Dejan Ćazić, Goran Marošević, Nataša Todorović, Dragoljub Mirjanić 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 10 2 109 114 10.17532/jhsci.2020.886 Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among Slovenian physiotherapists <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent a major problem for society, employers, and employees. These kinds of problems can cause discomfort, pain, and poor work performance. Among physiotherapists, the 1-year prevalence of WMSD ranges from 28 to 96%. Most problems occur in the lower back, with a 1-year prevalence of up to 83%. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of WMSD on a sample of physiotherapists from Slovenia and to identify associations between demographic/anthropometric variables, job satisfaction, and physical activity with WRMD aiming to contribute to the development of effective prevention and control strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The extended Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to obtain data from a sample of 102 physiotherapists. Data were presented with descriptive statistics and processing was performed with the <em>Spearman’s</em> rank <em>correlation coefficient</em> for non-parametric variables. The level of statistical significance was set as <em>p</em> ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The 1-year prevalence of WMSD was 92.2%. One-year prevalence of WMSD was highest for the neck (64%) and lower back (63%). Higher age and more years of practice were correlated with WMSD for shoulders and ankles/feet areas. Several patients treated by a physiotherapist were a risk factor for difficulties in the neck and multiple body areas. The level of physical activity was not correlated with WMSD in different body areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of WMSD found in our study sample was among the highest compared to other countries, despite probably having similar working conditions as elsewhere in Europe. The first WMSD of Slovenian physiotherapists mostly did not occur in the first 5 years of practice as other studies reported, which could be explained as a result of a good educational training of young physiotherapists. Possible reasons for the high prevalence of WMSD could be that our study sample represented only secondary and tertiary levels of health care; another reason could also be non-ergonomic and hard working conditions during their careers. Physiotherapists are mostly adequately physically active, however, that did not turn out to be effective WMSD prevention in our sample. The relatively high prevalence is indicating the need for better interventions and prevention of WMSD in Slovenian physiotherapists.</p> Jan Meh Nataša Bizovičar Nataša Kos Miroljub Jakovljević Copyright (c) 2020 Jan Meh, Nataša Bizovičar, Nataša Kos,Miroljub Jakovljević 2020-05-29 2020-05-29 10 2 115 124 10.17532/jhsci.2020.880 Geospatial clustering of newly diagnosed HIV infected adults in Cross River State helps define new “hotspots” <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> A hotspot is a geographical location having evidence of high STIs/HIV prevalence, and/or behaviors that put people at high risk of becoming infected. Therefore, Nigeria, with almost two million people living with HIV, could be considered a giant “hotspot.” The main aim was to describe how the geospatial clustering of newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Cross River State helps define new “hotspots.”<br />Methods: Secondary data collected between January 2020 and March 2020, identified and mapped around a presumed hotspot’s radius of influence (ROI), were analyzed using a “Hotspot Analysis” plugin in QGIS software. With a sample size of 3019, both seropositive and seronegative results were geo-referenced and the resultant map was analyzed to determine HIV-positive clusters.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> From the 3019 spatial locations mapped, 720 (23.9%) were positive cases. Of these, 328 (45.6%) were thus estimated as being associated with the presumed hotspots. The remaining 392 (54.4%) were positive cases identified outside of the ROI of the originally presumed hotspots. The total number of mapped HIV testing services (HTS) points (both negative and positive cases) within the hotspot ROI was 1319, while those outside of the hotspot ROI were 1700.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Unique hotspots where social gatherings occur tended to have a wider ROI. Targeted testing in these hard-to-reach communities is recommended.</p> Michael Egbe Antor O. Ndep Philip Imohi Kingsley Obase Frank Eyam Betta Edu Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Egbe, Antor O. Ndep, Philip Imohi, Kingsley Obase, Frank Eyam, Cajetan Obi, Peter Agada, Nnennaya Igwe, Augustine Idemudia, Ikechukwukah Abah, Betta Edu 2020-06-28 2020-06-28 10 2 125 132 10.17532/jhsci.2020.912 Prevalence and classification of anatomical variations of mandibular canal in panoramic radiographies <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Dental surgeries involving structures adjacent to the mandibular canal require greater knowledge of the intraosseous path, anatomical structure, and its variables, reducing the risk of injuries to this region. This research aimed to verify on the panoramic radiographs the anatomical characteristics of the mandibular canal, as well as to analyze and classify its pathways.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> The classification of anatomical variations of the mandibular canal was divided into four types: Class A (inferior direction); Class B (mesial direction); Class C (alveolar direction); and Class D (retromolar direction). The sample consisted of 500 exams, 207 (41.4%) males and 293 (58.6%) females, with a mean age of 29.51 years.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> A prevalence of 30 anatomical variations of the mandibular canal was observed. The most prevalent classifications were Class B (43.6%) followed by Class C (23.1%) and D (33.3%). In no case was the presence of bifid canals classified as Class A. The anatomical variations of the mandibular canal appeared both unilaterally and bilaterally, in which unilaterally the prevalence was on the left side (50%), on the right side (20%), and bilaterally (30%).<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> According to the results obtained in this study, a prevalence of 6% of bifid mandibular canals was found. The most prevalent types of the bifid canal were Class B and Class D, and the highest occurrence of bifid mandibular canals was left unilateral. It is concluded that the appearance of mandibular canal anatomical variations in panoramic radiographs is frequent and that additional care must be taken to approach the region.</p> George Borja de Freitas Pierre Gomes de Morais Silva Jalber Almeida dos Santos Luiz Roberto Coutinho Manhães Júnior Paula Bernardon Copyright (c) 2020 George Borja de Freitas, Pierre Gomes de Morais Silva, Jalber Almeida dos Santos, Luiz Roberto Coutinho Manhães Júnior, Paula Bernardon 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 10 2 133 138 10.17532/jhsci.2020.888 Nasal carriage rate and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus among the food handlers in Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The nasals and hand carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers (FHs) represent a significant source of Staphylococcal food contamination and food poisoning. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a microorganism’s ability to resist the action of one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus has demonstrated the ability to rapidly respond to each new antimicrobial with the development of a resistance mechanism. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage rate and AMR pattern of isolated strains S. aureus among FHs in Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The retrospective study included laboratory results of 11.139 tested subjects between January 2014 and December 2018. The study was conducted in the laboratory of the Institute of Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo. Samples of nasal swabs were collected from FHs, employees in companies located in Canton Sarajevo, during sanitary surveillance prescribed by applicable legal standards. S. aureus isolates were identified according to conventional microbiological methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar disk diffusion method according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 2013 standard.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 11.138 subjects, 792 (7.1%) were carriers of S. aureus. Isolated strains were tested on eight different antibiotics, and the resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin was 788 (99.5%), 776 (97.9%), and 752 (94.9%), retrospectively. In total, 86.36% of isolated strains were multidrug-resistant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The low percentage of S. aureus carriers indicates that preventive measures of carrier control are being actively implemented within the legally prescribed measures. The emergence of numerous isolated strains with multidrug-resistance characteristics is a significant public health problem and consequently limits the range of antibiotics available for therapeutic purposes. The results of this research indicate that AMR has increased in Sarajevo Canton and it is following the trend of global growth.</p> Sabina Šegalo Daniel Maestro Zarema Obradović Anes Jogunčić Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Health Sciences 2020-05-22 2020-05-22 10 2 139 146 10.17532/jhsci.2020.882 Early psychosocial predictors of mental health among Indians during coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This paper fulfills an identified need to study the mental health status of the population under situations like lockdown, thereby helping fill a persistent gap in Indian research on this issue, and present research on the impact of lockdown on mental health during epidemics is limited, especially in India. This study aims to scale the association between anxiety and sociodemographic factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown among the general Indian population.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional nationwide study designed to enroll the general population. The inclusion criteria for this study were Indian citizens aged 18 years and above. The study was conducted from March 29, 2020, to April 12, 2020, using an online google questionnaire. The anxiety among respondents was detected and measured using a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Scale, which consists of seven questions (in English), that is, GAD-7.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Responders were 392, and from these participants, the prevalence of anxiety was 25.3%. The predictors of anxiety were gender, religion, occupation as business/self-employed, marital status, family size, health status, and sleep deprivation based on the bivariate logistic regression analysis.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study reports the early prevalence of anxiety among the Indian population who were grounded at their homes during lockdown due to coronavirus pandemic in the country.</p> Absar Ahmad Ishrat Rahman Maitri Agarwal Copyright (c) 2020 Absar Ahmad, Ishrat Rahman, Maitri Agarwal 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 10 2 147 156 10.17532/jhsci.2020.950 Daily activities of employed persons with visual impairment <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The challenges faced by visually impaired people in their efforts to integrate themselves into the labor market and the general position of persons with disabilities, regarding their employment and social security, is extremely difficult. Employment is the best safeguard against social exclusion and one of the main ways to achieve a full involvement in the society of the visually impaired people.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> The research was conducted on a sample of 25 visually impaired people employed at “TMP” d.o.o. Sarajevo. The study was used as a cross-sectional survey method wherein data were collected through appropriate survey instruments, using a modified survey questionnaire.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total number of respondents, 48% are male and 52% are female. The majority of respondents use other persons’ assistance when moving (n = 16). The largest number of respondents had 100% visual impairment (n = 17). The majority of subjects have no strenuous physical activity. The largest number of respondents during the previous week walked for at least 10 minutes, in the sequence of all 7 days and was driven in motor vehicles. When doing household chores, 56% of respondents said they had no difficulty. The most common difficulties in recreation, sports and physical activity in leisure time, that were encountered by 32% of respondents, are poor sound signalling and difficulties of visual nature, though 68% of respondents said that they had no difficulty in their recreational activities.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The daily activities of employed visually impaired persons have a positive impact on their quality of life. Various are occupations of visually impaired people that improve their quality of life.</p> Amila Jaganjac Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović Bakir Katana Namik Trtak Eldad Kaljić Hadžan Konjo Amra Redžović Copyright (c) 2020 Amila Jaganjac, Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović, Bakir Katana, Bakir Katana, Eldad Kaljić, Hadžan Konjo, Amra Redžović 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 10 2 157 169 10.17532/jhsci.2020.893 Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna: A Case Report <p>Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a rare disorder common among postmenopausal females that involve increased volume and porosity of the frontal bone. Depending on the size, it could be symptomatic or asymptomatic. With a little report on the pathophysiology of HFI, we present a peculiar case of HFI with speculations that could shed more light on the already established literature and pose questions for future research.</p> Adegbenro Fakoya Jessica Heymans Amanda McCrary Omar Rodriguez Abdiel Cardona Abayomi Afolabi Thomas McCracken Copyright (c) 2020 Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya, Jessica Heymans, Amanda McCrary, Omar Rodriguez, Abdiel Cardona, Abayomi Gbolahan Afolabi, Thomas McCracken 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 10 2 170 172 10.17532/jhsci.2020.903 Anatomical Variation of the Thyroid Gland - Levator glandulae thyroideae: A Case Report <p>Surgical procedures on the thyroid are usually complicated by damage to the parathyroid glands, the external branch of superior laryngeal nerves, inferior laryngeal nerves, and hematoma due to vascular injury and the chance of residual thyroid tissue being left in case of cancer and Graves' disease, and the presence of anatomical variations. In this study, we describe the presence of a levator glandulae thyroideae that could misguide surgeons during surgical procedures.</p> Natalia Velasco-Nieves Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya Shannon Matthew Wirda Zafar Mahrukh Zafar Kevin Alonso Milla Sushanth Yerra Abayomi Afolabi Thomas McCracken Copyright (c) 2020 Natalia M. Velasco-Nieves, Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya, Shannon Mathew, Wirda Zafar, Mahrukh Zafar, Kevin Alonso Milla, Sushanth Yerra, Abayomi Gbolahan Afolabi, Thomas McCracken 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 10 2 173 175 10.17532/jhsci.2020.904 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a new pediatric challenge <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a pandemic disease that is today a global public health problem caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). COVID-19 is a disease of middle and old age, but clinical expression may also be present in childhood. Asymptomatic and mild clinical forms are most often present in persons aged 0-19, but severe clinical forms such as, among others, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur. In addition to presenting the epidemiology, clinical symptomatology of COVID-19, the authors consider certain specifics of COVID-19, that is, possible reasons for the lower incidence of the disease as well as unusual and rare clinical forms of the disease in children. The current activities of health professionals in the supervision of COVID-19 are mainly focused on early detection, isolation and treatment of patients, isolation of contacts, the regular and thorough practice of respiratory hygiene, hand hygiene, and physical distancing. Future efficient and safe vaccination will solve the biggest global medical challenge caused by the new coronavirus in the best possible manner.</p> Lutvo Sporišević Senka Mesihović-Dinarević Anes Jogunčić Aida Pilav Copyright (c) 2020 Lutvo Sporisevic, Senka Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Anes Joguncic, Aida Pilav 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 10 2 103 108 10.17532/jhsci.2020.972