Journal of Health Sciences <p><img style="float: right;" src="/ojs/public/site/images/davdic/jhsci-cover-6-1.jpg" alt="Journal of Health Sciences"></p> <p><em>The Journal of Health Sciences</em> is an international, open access, peer-reviewed and evidence-based scientific journal published by the University of Sarajevo Faculty of Health Sciences (UNSA FHS; <a href="" rel="noopener"></a>).&nbsp;It follows publishing standards set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; <a href="" rel="noopener"></a>), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; <a href="" rel="noopener"></a>), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME; <a href="" rel="noopener"></a>).</p> <p>The Journal's mission is to promote excellence in nursing and a range of disciplines and specialties of <a href="" rel="noopener">allied health professions</a>.&nbsp; It welcomes submissions from <strong>international academic and health professionals community</strong>. The Journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>evidence-based</strong> articles with solid and sound methodology, clinical application, description of best clinical practices, and discussion of relevant professional issues or perspectives. Articles can be submitted in the form of <strong>research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to editor or commentaries.</strong></p> <p>The Journal's priority are papers in the fields of nursing, physical therapy, medical laboratory science, environmental health, and medical imaging and radiologic technologies. Relevant papers from other disciplines of&nbsp;<a href="" rel="noopener">allied health professions</a> may be considered for publication.</p> <div> <p><strong>Editor-in-chief: Arzija Pasalic, PhD</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong>&nbsp;2232-7576<br><strong>EISSN:</strong>&nbsp;1986-8049</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong>&nbsp;three times per year (April, September, December)</p> <p><strong>Indexed/abstracted in:</strong> SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, Google Scholar, PROQUEST, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), CAB Abstracts, ULRICH'S, Academic Journal Database, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, Index Copernicus, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, SciLit Basel, ScienceOpen</p> </div> University of Sarajevo Faculty of Health Studies en-US Journal of Health Sciences 2232-7576 Women's education and profession midwifery in Nordic countries <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Help at birth is one of the historically oldest volunteers supports that a woman has offered to another woman. One of the reasons for high maternal and infant mortality was identified as a lack of basic medical knowledge among the woman who helped during birth and this required immediate action to secure the survival of nations. When the Church and government made demands for education and professional license, the voluntary help at birth transformed into an educated and paid profession for women. The study aimed to describe the evolution of women’s education and the midwifery profession in Nordic countries from the 1600s until today.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Historical and contemporary documents, research and grey literature, are drawn together to provide a historical description of the midwifery professional development and education in Nordic countries.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the Nordic countries, governments from the 1600s had significant problems with high maternal and infant mortality. Most vulnerable were unmarried women and their children. To change the trend, northern countries had been inspired by France, Holland, England, and Germany, which had introduced education and a professional license for midwives. The targeted and systematic investment in midwifery education, followed by industrialization and welfare development in Nordic countries, has resulted in one of the highest survival rates for mothers and infants in the world today. In parallel with this, it has created the first female paid profession in history. Today, midwifery education is at the university level in all Nordic countries, and the certified midwife is responsible for pre- and post-natal care and normal birth. In Sweden, Norway, and Iceland, the midwife’s responsibility also includes contraception counseling and prescription of drugs for birth control purposes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The education and professional licenses have contributed to a progressively improved care of birth women and infants. The professional and licensed midwife is positioned in society as an essential player in the current development of pre- and post-natal care. Furthermore, the graduated and licensed midwife positioned herself as the first paid professional female profession in modern history.</p> Zada Pajalić Oleg Pajalić Diana Saplacan Copyright (c) 2019 Zada Pajalic, Oleg Pajalic, Diana Saplacan 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 127 135 10.17532/jhsci.2019.820 Development of physiotherapy through the history and education in Bosnia and Herzegovina <p>In the study, the development of physiotherapy was described through the history and education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) with a special review on the significance of physiotherapy as a health-care discipline and the display of its development to the academic level of education in BiH.</p> Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović Amila Jaganjac Dijana Avdić Bakir Katana Samir Bojičić Muris Pecar Fuad Julardžija Copyright (c) 2019 Amra Macak Hadžiomerovic, Amila Jaganjac, Dijana Avdic, Samir Bojicic, Bakir Katana, Muris Pecar, Fuad Julardzija 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 136 143 10.17532/jhsci.2019.883 Biomarker: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and telomere length of Thai elderly people with frailty <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Thailand has a rapidly aging population; assessing frailty earlier with biochemical markers could identify many adverse outcomes such as disability, hospitalization, and death. We aimed to examine the correlation between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and telomere length and frailty for elderly people in Northern Thailand<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross<em>-</em>sectional study was performed between May 2017 and March 2018 with a total of 350 elderly aged 60 and older for frailty phenotype assessment by five frailty criteria including unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, low physical activities, and grip strength weakness<em>. </em>Twenty<em>-</em>eight subjects in both the frailty and non<em>-</em>frailty groups were analyzed for basic clinical parameters, including plasma TEAC, TBARS, and telomere length<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Alanine aminotransferase activity, albumin concentration, cholesterol level, and telomere length were significantly low in the frailty group. The albumin level, TEAC, and telomere length were significantly higher between the ages of 60 and 75 years compared to those with non-frailty over 75 years of age. Likewise, albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the frailty group aged 60–75 years. Albumin concentration, cholesterol level, TEAC, and telomere length were significantly higher in the non-frailty group when compared to the frailty group aged 60–75 years, but no significant difference was found among these biochemical parameters of frailty and non-frailty whose age was above 75 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The reduction of albumin concentration, cholesterol level, TEAC, and telomere length supports the underlying mechanism of frailty screened by the frailty phenotype tool in a specific age range<em>. </em>However, further analyses with multi<em>-</em>parameters must be validated before the application in clinical diagnosis for frailty.</p> Jetsada Ruangsuriya Penprapa Siviroj Pisittawoot Ayood Krongporn Ongprasert Navakoon Kaewtunjai Somdet Srichairatanakool Wirote Tuntiwechapikul Jiraporn Chittrakul Copyright (c) 2019 Jetsada Ruangsuriya, Penprapa Siviroj, Pisittawoot Ayood, Krongporn Ongprasert, Navakoon Kaewtunjai, Somdet Srichairatanakool, Wirote Tuntiwechapikul, Jiraporn Chittrakul 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 144 150 10.17532/jhsci.2019.737 The Algorithm for overload syndrome prevention: Osgood-Schlatter's syndrome (OSD) as an overload syndrome caused by early inclusion of children in sports and excessive physical activity (sports and recreation) <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Osgood-Schlatter’s syndrome (Osgood-Schlatter disease [OSD]) is caused by an accumulation of repeated microtraumas and is classified as a type of chronic injury called “overload syndrome“. It is considered that the root causes of OSD are accelerated growth as well as excessive sports and recreational activity. Currently, more than 50% of children of school age are involved in sports activities. In this study, 40 external risk factors were analyzed. Considering that frequent medical examinations, expensive rehabilitation, time-consuming sports activities, and school obligations result in major socio-economic and financial consequences, a need to work on a preventive program was recognized. The aim of this study was to determine external risk factors and to develop an algorithm for the prevention of injuries caused by overload syndrome through a detailed analysis of Osgood-Schlatter’s syndrome concerning aerobic and anaerobic sports (football, basketball, karate, and taekwondo).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research has been conducted on 200 patients who were previously diagnosed with Osgood-Schlatter’s syndrome. The participants were divided into two groups, each containing 100 patients, first group – aerobic sports (football and basketball) and the second group – anaerobic sports (karate and taekwondo). Personal information, anthropometric measurements, complete medical, and sports history were taken from the patients. A clinical examination was conducted by the researcher himself. This clinical study was prospective, comparative, analytical, and descriptive. The research was conducted in the Public Center for Sports Medicine of Canton Sarajevo. Software used for statistical data analysis was SPSS for Windows (version 20.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) and Microsoft Excel (version 13 of Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients experienced the first symptoms of OSD at 4 years (football) and 6 years (taekwondo). About 60% of patients who trained in anaerobic sports and 38% of patients who trained in aerobic sports trained other sports more often as well. The research showed that a higher percentage of patients who trained anaerobic sports trained multiple sports at the same time (karate 88%, and taekwondo 82%) compared to patients who trained aerobic sports (football 68%, and basketball 76%). Patients who trained in anaerobic sports were also more likely to engage in recreational activities (58.3%) compared to patients who trained in aerobic sports (41.7%). On average, the number of hours per week which patients spent actively training (primary sport, additional sports activity, and recreational sport) was 17.2 h for basketball players, 16.8 h for taekwondo trainees, 16.7 h for caratists, and 15.7 h in case of football players. About 32% of football players, 24% of basketball players, 12% of karate trainees, and 18% of taekwondo trainees did not engage in additional sports or recreational activities. Only 36% of patients who trained in aerobic sports and 37% of patients who trained anaerobic sports respected the planned rest days, and in both groups, some subjects trained for 12 months.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research showed that patients who trained in anaerobic sports more frequently trained more than one sport at the same time and spent more hours doing recreational activities compared to patients who trained in aerobic sports. By analyzing weekly physical activity, it was concluded that the rest is limited. Future research aims to identify risk factors so that children, parents, and trainers can be educated to work on prevention through teamwork.</p> Amela Halilbašić Amir Kreso Muhamed Klepić Amila Jaganjac Dijana Avdic Copyright (c) 2019 Amela Halilbasic, Amir Kreso, Muhamed Klepic, Amila Jaganjac, Dijana Avdic 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 151 158 10.17532/jhsci.2019.895 Medication Adherence to Type 2 Diabetic Patients Hospitalized at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has been a global epidemic in the new millennium and the majority of all diabetic patients constitute Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medication adherence to prescribed treatments is a key determinant to achieve therapeutic success reduces diabetic complications. The aim of the study was to examine the level of medication adherence to Type 2 diabetic patients hospitalized at tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was descriptive cross-sectional design. A total of 112 Type 2 diabetic patients were conveniently recruited from tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants was 57.46 (SD=11.65) years. More than half of the patients (60.7%) were male and majority of them (94.6%) were married. The mean score of diabetic medication adherence was calculated as 26.46 (SD=1.58). Adherence to diabetic medications was significantly associated with age (p=.01), occupation (p=.003), duration of DM (p=.003), oral hypoglycemic agents (p=.02), HbA1c (p=&lt; .01) and Fasting Blood Sugar (p=&lt; .01). Medication non-adherence significantly found in patients with presence of diabetic retinopathy (p=&lt;.01), microalbuminuria (p=.01), dyslipidemia (p=.006), hypertension (p=.01) and other chronic diseases (p=.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The level of medication adherence among Type 2 diabetic patients was found to be suboptimal. Good adherence has beneficial effects on HbA1c and FBS. For improving adherence particular focus should pay to diabetic patients with different age groups and the presence of comorbidities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Masud Rana Mohammad Shariful Islam Jotsna Akter Shanzida Khatun Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammad Masud Rana, Mohammad Shariful Islam, Jostna Akter, Shanzida Khatun 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 159 167 10.17532/jhsci.2019.818 Prevalence of orofacial trauma in soccer players of a Brazilian club <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The objectives of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of orofacial injuries in soccer players of a Brazilian club, considering the category, the position in the field, and the most affected anatomic site, through medical records.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 126 charts of players from the base categories (sub-15, sub-17, and sub-20) and male and female professional categories from 2016 to 2018 were evaluated. It was considered inclusion criteria to be a soccer player hired by a club in the indicated period. The exclusion criteria of the study correspond to the medical records registered after the chronological date stipulated or that did not have the correct registry of the occurred trauma.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The data analyzed presented a moderate value in relation to the orofacial traumas prevalence, and 64.3% of the athletes of the club have some record type of trauma in the face. We observed that soft-tissue lacerations of the lips and dental fractures present the highest frequencies (73% and 27%, respectively). The positions of defender, striker, and midfield are the most susceptible to injuries (31%, 24%, and 23%, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental and orofacial trauma are a problem commonly encountered in sports, being present also in collective sports, such as football. It was observed a moderate prevalence of injuries on the face, especially among the athletes who are ahead of the attack line, with lip lacerations and dental fractures being the most common events.</p> Larissa Leci Fernandes Debora Magalhaes Barreto Barbara Capitanio de Souza Cornelis Robert Springer Copyright (c) 2019 Larissa Leci Fernandes , Debora Magalhaes Barreto , Barbara Capitanio de Souza, Cornelis Robert Springer 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 168 172 10.17532/jhsci.2019.795 Percutaneous coronary intervention in four month old infant for acute myocardial ischemia after repaired ALCAPA <p>Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is rare, but life-threatening condition. The treatment of choice in patients with ALCAPA is the establishment of a dual coronary artery system with surgical reimplantation of the left coronary artery in the left coronary sinus. Percutaneous coronary intervention is infrequent in the pediatric population but can be a life-saving by promptly restoring flow to an obstructed coronary artery. It is a highly demanding and high-risk procedure in infants due to the technical difficulties and the small coronary artery diameter in infants.</p> Mirsad Kacila Mirza Halimić Merjema Karavdić Almira Kadić Saša Lukić Sanko Pandur Nusreta Hadzimuratović Copyright (c) 2019 Mirsad Kacila, Mirza Halimic, Merjema Karavdic, Almira Kadic, Sasa Lukic, Sanko Pandur, Nusreta Hadžimuratovic 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 173 176 10.17532/jhsci.2019.871 Fenestration of the vertebral artery presented by computed tomography angiography of the neck's blood vessels: A case study <p>Vertebral artery fenestration is a rare vascular anomaly. It most commonly occurs in extracranial segments of the vertebral artery. This congenital anomaly can occur during the various stages of embryonic development of the vertebral artery. This usually does not have clinical significance, but the possibility of associated anomalies such as saccular aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations should be noted. Awareness of vascular anomalies is key to avoiding iatrogenic injury during endovascular diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Here, we present incidental findings of vertebral artery fenestration in a 46-year-old woman evidenced by CT angiography of the neck's blood vessells after I .V. contrast medium applications.</p> Deniz Bulja Jasmin Havić Sandra Vegar-Zubović Merim Jusufbegovic Adnan Šehić Fuad Julardžija Copyright (c) 2019 Deniz Bulja, Jasmin Havic, Sandra Vegar - Zubovic, Merim Jusufbegovic, Adnan Sehic, Fuad Julardzija 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 177 179 10.17532/jhsci.2019.827 Canal cholesteatoma in canal stenosis: a case report <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> We present the a-12-year old female with canal stenosis and canal cholesteatoma. We discuss the clinical, radiological and treatment option for canal cholesteatoma in canal stenosis</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Congenital canal atresia is a failure of the development of the external auditory canal which comprises anomalies of variable severity involving pinna, external acoustic canal, middle ear structures and rarely inner ear leading to hearing impairment. Congenital canal stenosis is considered to be a subset of congenital canal atresia. This malformation results in mild to severe conductive hearing loss. Furthermore, the risk of cholesteatoma increased when it is associated with the stenotic ear. Radiological evaluation in the form of an HRCT scan of temporal bones should always be done in these patients during their initial presentation and surgery should be planned accordingly. Their presence should be rule out prior to any corrective surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although the incidence of canal cholesteatoma is rare in congenital canal stenosis, all patients presenting with canal atresia or stenosis should be evaluated thoroughly due to their potential to develop cholesteatoma as it may be challenging to treat at an advanced stage in view of morbid complications.&nbsp;</p> Asma Abdullah Wan Nabila Wan Mansor Mark Paul Noor Dina Hashim Copyright (c) 2019 Asma Abdullah, Wan Nabila Wan Mansor, Mark Paul, Noor Dina Hashim 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 3 180 183 10.17532/jhsci.2019.693