Cytogenotoxic effects of two potential anticancer Ruthenium(III) Schiff Bases complexes
Keywords:ruthenium, Schiff bases, anticancer agents, apoptosis, chromosome aberrations, cytogenotoxic effects
Introduction: Treatment of cancer has been subject of great interest. Researchers are continuously searching for new medicines. In this sense, ruthenium complexes have big potential. Some evidences suggest that ruthenium compounds possess anticancer activities. We synthesized two recently published ruthenium(III) complexes with bidentate O,N and tridentate O,O,N Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted salicylaldehyde and aminophenol or anilineare. These compounds showed affinity for binding to the DNA molecule, however, insufficient data are available regarding their possible toxic effects on biological systems.
Methods: In the present study we evaluated genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic effects of Na[RuCl2(L1)2] and Na[Ru(L2)2], using the Allium cepa assay.
Results: Different toxic effects were observed depending on the substance, tested concentration, and endpoint measured. In general, the tested compounds significantly lowered the root growth and mitotic index values as compared to the control group. Additionally, a wide range of abnormal mitotic stages, both clastogenic and non-clastogenic were observed in the treated cells. Na[RuCl2(L1)2] significantly increased the frequency of sticky metaphases, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, impaired chromosome segregation, as well as number of apoptotic and necrotic cells over the controls. In contrast, Na[Ru(L2)2] did not show significant evidence of genotoxicity with regard to chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, however, significant differences were detected in the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells when the highest concentration was applied.
Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated antiproliferative effects of Na[RuCl2(L1)2] and Na[Ru(L2)2]. At clinical level, these results could be interesting for further studies on anticancer potential of the ruthenium(III) complexes using animal models.