The incidence of vascular complications after coronary angiography: evaluation of results and risk factors
Introduction: The aim of this study was to present the incidence of the vascular complications that had to be surgically treated during the two-year period of transfemoral cardiac catheterization procedure and to identify the risk factors associated with the complications.
Methods: A retrospective two-year study of post-catheterization complications with the six-month postoperative follow-up and analysis of risk factors was done. Patients with cardiovascular diseases who underwent therapeutic or diagnostic coronary angiography in the period of 2012-2013 were included in the study. A total of 1320 patients were subjected to catheterization for coronary angiography, of which 24 had vascular complications that had to be surgically treated. Indications for operative treatment included rapid growth of pseudoaneurysm, hemorrhage, large hematoma, hemodynamic instability, failure of the targeted compression therapy.
Results: Twenty-four patients experienced some kind of post-operative complication. Infection and dehiscence of surgical wound were the two most common complications. There were no fatalities. The average length of a hospitalization was 4 days. The important risk factors are gender (women more than man), obesity, concomitant use of anticoagulation therapy and antiplatelet therapy after catheterization.
Conclusion: Insufficient length of the compression of the punctured place and increased risks of a pseudoaneurysm formation, such as female gender, obesity, and use of a combined anticoagulant therapy are the main causes of these complications. Late vascular complications are not uncommon.