Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

  • Amila Kapetanović Medical Rehabilitation Center Fojnica, Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Dijana Avdić Clinic for orthopedics and traumatology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Keywords: osteoporosis, physical activity


Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.
Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.
Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.
Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.


World Health organization. Prevention and management of osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series 921, 2003.

Lerner UH. Bone remodeling in post-menopausal osteoporosis. J Dent Res.2006 Jul;85(7):584-95.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis:A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD; 2004.

Roux C. The living skeleton. Wolters Kluwer Health France, 2007.

Syed F, Khosla S. Mechanisms of sex steroid effects on bone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Mar 18;328(3):688-96.

Manolagas SC, Kousteni S, Jilka RL. Sex steroids and bone. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:385-409.

Sarah Gueldner SH, Grabo TN, Newman ED, Cooper DR. Osteoporosis –Clinical Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management. Springer Publishing Company, 2008.

Nomura S, Takano-Yamamoto T.Molecular events caused by mechanical stress in bone. Matrix Biol. 2000 May;19(2):91-6.

Turner CH, Warden SJ, Bellido T, Plotkin LI, Kumar N, Jasiuk I, Danzig J, Robling AG. Mechanobiology of the skeleton. Sci Signal. 2009;2(68):pt3.

Bertone-Johnson ER, Tworoger SS, Hankinson SE. Recreational physical activity and steroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol.2009 Nov 1;170(9):1095-104.

Chan MF, Dowsett M, Folkerd E, Bingham S, Wareham N, Luben R, Welch A, Khaw KT. Usual physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the European prospective investigation into cancer-norfolk population study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 May;16(5):900-5.

Maïmoun L, Sultan C. Effect of physical activity on calcium homeostasis and calciotropic hormones: a review.Calcif Tissue Int. 2009 Oct;85(4):277-86.

MP Warren and NE Perlroth. The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. Journal of Endocrinology 2001;170(1):3-11.

Imai Y , Kondoh S, Kouzmenko A, Kato S. Minireview: Osteoprotective Action of Estrogens is Mediated by Osteoclastic Estrogen Receptor-α. Molecular Endocrinology 2010;24(5):877-885

McClung MR. The menopause and HRT. Prevention and management of osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2003;17(1):53-71.

De Melo Ocarino N, Serakides R. Effect of the physical activity on normal bone and on the osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Rev Bras Med Esporto – Vol.12. No 3 – Mai/Jun, 2006.

Lester ME, Urso ML, Evans RK, Pierce JR, Spiering BA, Maresh CM, Hatfield DL, Kraemer WJ, Nindl BC.Influence of exercise mode and osteogenic index on bone biomarker responses during short-term physical training. Bone. 2009 Oct;45(4):768-76.

Bonaiuti D, Shea B, Iovine R, Negrini S, Robinson V, Kemper HC, Wells G, Tugwell P, Cranney A. Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD000333

Hagberg JM, Zmuda JM, McCole SD, Rodgers KS, Ferrell RE, Wilund KR, Moore GE. Moderate physical activity is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Nov;49(11):1411-7.

Feskanich D, Willett W, Colditz C. Walking and Leisure-Time Activity and Risk of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA.2002;288(18):2300-2306.

Schmitt NM, Schmitt J, Dören M. The role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women – An update. Maturitas.2009 May 20;63(1):34-8.

Ryan AS, Ivey FM, Hurlbut DE, Martel GF, Lemmer JT, Sorkin JD, Metter EJ, Fleg JL, Hurley BF. Regional bone mineral density after resistive training in young and older men and women Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Feb;14(1):16-23

Roghani T, Torkaman G, Movasseghe S, Hedayati M, Goosheh B, Bayat N.Effects of short-term aerobic exercise with and without external loading on bone metabolism and balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Rheumatol Int. 2013 Feb;33(2):291-8.

Kemmler W, von Stengel S, Bebenek M, Engelke K, Hentschke C, Kalender WA. Exercise and fractures in postmenopausal women: 12-year results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS). Osteoporos Int. 2012 Apr;23(4):1267-76.

Barrett-Connor E, Siris ES, Wehren LE, Miller PD, Abbott TA, Berger ML, Santora AC, Sherwood LM. Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Feb;20(2):185-94.

Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Leat C, Jonsson B, Oden A, Ogelsby AK. International variations in hip fracture probabilities: implications for risk assessment. J Bone Miner Res. 2002 Jul; 17(7):1237-44.

Sambrook P, Kelly P, Eisman J. Bone mass and ageing. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1993 Oct;7(3):445-57.

How to Cite
Kapetanović, A. and Avdić, D. (2013) “Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history”, Journal of Health Sciences, 3(3), pp. 205-209. doi: 10.17532/jhsci.2013.108.
Research articles